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Liquid gas and feedstocks:

Liquefied gases and feedstocks are substances used especially as fuels or as raw materials supplied to processing plant for chemical synthesis. Some hydrocarbons such as ethylene, 1, 3-butadiene, propane and butane are classified in this category.


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Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8, normally a gas, but compressible to a transportable liquid. A by-product of natural gas processing and petroleum refining, it is commonly used as a fuel for engines, oxy-gas torches, portable stoves, and residential central heating. Propane is one of a group of liquefied petroleum gases (LP gases). The others include butane, propylene, butadiene, butylene, isobutylene and mixtures thereof.


Butane is an organic compound with the formula C4H10 that is an alkane with four carbon atoms. Butane is a gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The term may refer to either of two structural isomers, n-butane or isobutane (or "methyl propane"), or to a mixture of these isomers. In the IUPAC nomenclature, however, "butane" refers only to the n-butane isomer (which is the isomer with the unbranched structure). Butanes are highly flammable, colorless, easily liquefied gases. The name butane comes from the roots but- (from butyric acid) and -ane.


1.3-Butadiene is a simple conjugated diene with the formula C4H6. It is an important industrial chemical used as a monomer in the production of synthetic rubber. When the word butadiene is used, most of the time it refers to 1.3-butadiene.

The name butadiene can also refer to the isomer, 1.2-butadiene, which is a cumulated diene. However, this alone is difficult to prepare and has no industrial significance. This diene is also not expected to act as a diene in a Diels–Alder reaction due to its structure. To effect a Diels-Alder reaction only a conjugated diene will suffice.

Penta Plus

In chemical separation terminology, the raffinate (from French raffiner, to refine) is a product which has had a component or components removed. The product containing the removed materials is referred to as the extract. For example, in solvent extraction, the raffinate is the liquid stream which remains after solutes from the original liquid are removed through contact with an immiscible liquid. In metallurgy, raffinating refers to a process in which impurities are removed from liquid material.
In pressure swing adsorption the raffinate refers to the gas which is not adsorbed during the high pressure stage. The species which is desorbed from the adsorbent at low pressure may be called the "extract" product.

LPG Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), also referred to as simply propane or butane, are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles. It is increasingly used as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant, replacing chlorofluorocarbons in an effort to reduce damage to the ozone layer. When specifically used as a vehicle fuel it is often referred to as auto gas. Varieties of LPG bought and sold include mixes that are primarily propane and, most commonly, mixes including both propane and butane. In winter, the mixes contain more propane, while in summer, they contain more butane. In the United States, primarily two grades of LPG are sold: commercial propane and HD-5. These specifications are published by the Gas Processors Association (GPA) and the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). Propane/butane blends are also listed in these specifications. Propylene, butylene and various other hydrocarbons are usually also present in small concentrations. HD-5 limits the amount of propylene that can be placed in LPG to 5%, and is utilized as an auto gas specification. A powerful odorant, Ethan ethyl, is added so that leaks can be detected easily. The international standard is EN 589. In the United States, tetra hydro thiophene (thiophane) or amyl mercaptan are also approved odorants, although neither is currently being utilized.PG is prepared by refining petroleum or "wet" natural gas, and is almost entirely derived from fossil fuel sources, being manufactured during the refining of petroleum (crude oil), or extracted from petroleum or natural gas streams as they emerge from the ground.