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Aromatics:

An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with alternating double and single bonds between carbon atoms forming rings. The term 'aromatic' was assigned before the physical mechanism determiningaromaticity was discovered; the term was coined as such simply because many of the compounds have a sweet or pleasant odor. The configuration of six carbon atoms in aromatic compounds is known as a benzene ring, after the simplest possible such hydrocarbon, benzene. Aromatic hydrocarbons can be monocyclic (MAH) or polycyclic (PAH).

Some non-benzene-based compounds called heteroarenes, which follow Hückel's rule (for monocyclic rings: when the number of its π-electrons equals 4n+2), are also called aromatic compounds. In these compounds, at least one carbon atom is replaced by one of the heteroatoms oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur. Examples of non-benzene compounds with aromatic properties are furan, a heterocyclic compound with a five-membered ring that includes a single oxygen atom, and pyridine, a heterocyclic compound with a six-membered ring containing one nitrogen atom.

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Benzene

Benzene is an organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6. Its molecule is composed of 6 carbon atoms joined in a ring, with 1 hydrogen atom attached to each carbon atom. Because its molecules contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms, benzene is classed as a hydrocarbon.

 

Orto Xylene

O-Xylene (ortho-xylene) is an aromatic hydrocarbon, based on benzene with two methyl substituents bonded to adjacent carbon atoms in the aromatic ring (the ortho configuration).
It is a constitutional isomer of m-xylene and p-xylene.
O-Xylene is largely used in the production of phthalic anhydride, and is generally extracted by distillation from a mixed xylene stream in a plant primarily designed for p-xylene production.

 

 

Para Xylene

P-Xylene is an aromatic hydrocarbon based on benzene with two methyl substituents with the chemical formula C8H10 or C6H4 (CH3)2. The “p” stands for para, identifying the location of the methyl groups as across from one another. It is an isomer of xylene. Other isomers include o-xylene and m-xylene. The boiling point of p-xylene is 138.35 °C (281 °F) and the melting point is 13.2 °C (56 °F).[2] p-Xylene is used on a large scale for the manufacture of terephthalic acid for polyester. Its polymer is known as parylene.

 

 

Mixed Xylene

M-Xylene (or meta-xylene) is an aromatic hydrocarbon, based on benzene with two methyl substituents. It is an isomer of o-xylene and p-xylene. The m stands for Meta, meaning the two methyl substituents are at locates 1 and 3 on the aromatic ring. M-Xylene is commonly produced in BTX processes, and separated as needed from the other aromatic hydrocarbons.The major chemical use of meta-xylene is in the manufacture of isophthalic acid, which is used as a copolymerizing monomer to alter the properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), making PET more suitable for the manufacture of soft drinks bottles.

 

 

Toulene

Toluene formerly known as toluol is a colorless, water-insoluble liquid with the smell associated with paint thinners. It is a mono-substituted benzene derivative, consisting of a CH3 group attached to a phenyl group. As such, its IUPAC systematic name is methylbenzene. It is an aromatic hydrocarbon.